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Open Access Monilochaetes and allied genera of the Glomerellales, and a reconsideration of families in the Microascales

We examined the phylogenetic relationships of two species that mimic Chaetosphaeria in teleomorph and anamorph morphologies, Chaetosphaeria tulasneorum with a Cylindrotrichum anamorph and Australiasca queenslandica with a Dischloridium anamorph. Four data sets were analysed: a) the internal transcribed spacer region including ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2 (ITS), b) nc28S (ncLSU) rDNA, c) nc18S (ncSSU) rDNA, and d) a combined data set of ncLSU-ncSSU-RPB2 (ribosomal polymerase B2). The traditional placement of Ch. tulasneorum in the Microascales based on ncLSU sequences is unsupported and Australiasca does not belong to the Chaetosphaeriaceae. Both holomorph species are nested within the Glomerellales. A new genus, Reticulascus, is introduced for Ch. tulasneorum with associated Cylindrotrichum anamorph; another species of Reticulascus and its anamorph in Cylindrotrichum are described as new. The taxonomic structure of the Glomerellales is clarified and the name is validly published. As delimited here, it includes three families, the Glomerellaceae and the newly described Australiascaceae and Reticulascaceae. Based on ITS and ncLSU rDNA sequence analyses, we confirm the synonymy of the anamorph genera Dischloridium with Monilochaetes. Consequently Dischloridium laeënse, type species of the genus, and three related species are transferred to the older genus Monilochaetes. The teleomorph of D. laeënse is described in Australiasca as a new species. The Plectosphaerellaceae, to which the anamorph genus Stachylidium is added, is basal to the Glomerellales in the three-gene phylogeny. Stilbella annulata also belongs to this family and is newly combined in Acrostalagmus. Phylogenetic analyses based on ncLSU, ncSSU, and combined ncLSU-ncSSU-RPB2 sequences clarify family relationships within the Microascales. The family Ceratocystidaceae is validated as a strongly supported monophyletic group consisting of Ceratocystis, Cornuvesica, Thielaviopsis, and the type species of Ambrosiella. The new family Gondwanamycetaceae, a strongly supported sister clade to the Ceratocystidaceae, is introduced for the teleomorph genus Gondwanamyces and its Custingophora anamorphs. Four families are accepted in the Microascales, namely the Ceratocystidaceae, Gondwanamycetaceae, Halosphaeriaceae, and Microascaceae. Because of a suggested affinity of a Faurelina indica isolate to the Microascales, the phylogenetic position of the Chadefaudiellaceae is reevaluated. Based on the results from a separate ncLSU analysis of the Dothideomycetes, Faurelina is excluded from the Microascales and placed in the Pleosporales.

Keywords: Australiasca; Australiascaceae; Ceratocystidaceae; Cylindrotrichum; Dischloridium; Gondwanamycetaceae; Plectosphaerellaceae; Reticulascaceae; Reticulascus; phylogeny

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: March 1, 2011

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  • Studies in Mycology is an international journal which publishes systematic monographs of filamentous fungi and yeasts, and special topical issues related to all fields of mycology, biotechnology, ecology, molecular biology, pathology and systematics. The journal is Open-Access and contains monographs or topical issues (5–6 papers per issue). There are no restrictions of length, although it is generally expected that manuscripts should be at least 50 A4 pages in print.
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