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Open Access Penicillium diversity in Canadian bat caves, including a new species, P. speluncae

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Penicillium species were commonly isolated during a fungal survey of bat hibernacula in New Brunswick and Quebec, Canada. Strains were isolated from arthropods, bats, rodents (i.e. the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus), their dung, and cave walls. Hundreds of fungal strains were recovered, of which Penicillium represented a major component of the community. Penicillium strains were grouped by colony characters on Blakeslee’s malt extract agar. DNA sequencing of the secondary identification marker, beta-tubulin, was done for representative strains from each group. In some cases, ITS and calmodulin were sequenced to confirm identifications. In total, 13 species were identified, while eight strains consistently resolved into a unique clade with P. discolor, P. echinulatum and P. solitum as its closest relatives. Penicillium speluncae is described using macro- and micromorphological characters, multigene phylogenies (including ITS, beta-tubulin, calmodulin and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit) and extrolite profiles. Major extrolites produced by the new species include cyclopenins, viridicatins, chaetoglobosins, and a microheterogenous series of cyclic and linear tetrapeptides.
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Keywords: Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) concept; Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd); Thysanophora; new taxon; secondary metabolites; sect. Fasciculata

Affiliations: 1: Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, P. Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria, South Africa 2: New Brunswick Museum, 277 Douglas Avenue, Saint John, New Brunswick, E2K 1E5, Canada 3: London Research & Development Centre, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, London, Ontario, N5V 4T3, Canad 4: Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, Uppsalalaan 8, Utrecht, 3584 CT, Netherlands 5: Biodiversity (Mycology), Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, 960 Carling Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0C6, Canada

Appeared or available online: August 9, 2019

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