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The 4 Cs of environmental business: Introducing a new conceptual framework

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Although a number of research attempts on corporate environmentalism, environmental orientation and environmental/green marketing are witnessed in the literature, a wider conceptualisation related to environmental business is absent. This papers aims a) to synthesise the received view from literature, b) to draw conceptual implications on the domain of environmental business, and c) to provide a coherent structure for what is a rapidly growing and fragmented body of literature, to assist those working on the topic to comprehend it.


We built up a database with a number of influential articles on corporate environmentalism, environmental orientation and environmental/green marketing in order to review the literature related to environmental business.


Synthesising the current literature, four pillars of environmental business are uncovered as the organisational prerequisites a company should meet in order to achieve environmental business excellence, namely: Commitment, Culture, Corporate Environmental Performance, and Communication (4 Cs).


This is a preliminary conceptual framework that needs to be tested in the future. A long-term view of literature could improve the findings.


Managers can critically evaluate the findings of the present review as a starting point of reference for environmental business. In addition, this paper offers opportunities for researchers, in the empirical testing of an entrepreneurial orientation model, and practitioners, to undertake pioneering work in its implementation.


This study contributes to the building of a novel conceptual and integrated model on environmental business. This paper also reveals four major topics that can constitute a new conceptual framework for future research.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: December 1, 2014

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