Degradation of X-Ray Contrast Media Compounds by Combined Ozone and Ultrasound
The aqueous degradation of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) by the combination of ozone and ultrasound has been studied. Experiments were conducted at a constant ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz, at five power densities up to 0.235 W/mL, and various ozone centrations. In experiments involving dissolved ozone in solution, the addition of ultrasound significantly decreased the oxidation performance of the dissolved ozone, while the combination of dissolved oxygen and ultrasound gave a greater oxidation performance than ultrasound alone. However, the combination of gaseous ozone and ultrasound was found to give a higher degree of compound degradation than either ozone or ultrasound alone. In the experiments with final effluent, the degradation of ICM compounds by gaseous ozone and ultrasound was found to depend on the ozone dose applied. The degradation of ICM compounds in final effluent was modeled, which was found to moderately overestimate the observed compound degradation.
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