Instructional constraints on movement and performance of players in the penalty kick
The influence of different instructional constraints on movement organisation and performance outcomes of the penalty kick (PK) was investigated according to participant age. Sixty penalty takers and twelve goalkeepers from two age groups (under 15 and under 17) performed 300 PKs under five different task conditions, including: no explicit instructional constraints provided (Control); instructional constraints on immobility (IMMOBILE) and mobility (MOBILE) of goalkeepers; and, use of keeper-dependent (DEP) and independent (INDEP) strategies by penalty takers. Every trial was video recorded and digitised using motion analysis techniques. Dependent variables (DVs) were: movement speed of penalty takers and the angles between the goalkeeper's position and the goal line (i.e., diving angle), and between the penalty taker and a line crossing the penalty spot and the centre of the goal (i.e., run up angle). Instructions significantly influenced the way that goalkeepers (higher values in MOBILE relative to Control) and penalty takers (higher values in Control than in DEP) used movement speed during performance, as well as the goalkeepers' movements and diving angle (less pronounced dives in the MOBILE condition compared with INDEP). Results showed how different instructions constrained participant movements during performance, although players' performance efficacy remained constant, reflecting their adaptive variability.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: August 1, 2012