Stock Enhancement in Japan: Review and Perspective
Some species typically used in stock enhancement in Japan were reviewed, and the causes of program success or failure were analyzed in an attempt to determine the best approach for future stocking. Recent successes in salmon stock enhancement are attributed to improvement of the return rate resulting from physiological and behavioral research. In scallop stock enhancement, high quality of seedlings, improvement of the environment, crop rotation, and the marketing system have supported a steady yearly increase in yield. Flounder stock enhancement in Fukushima Prefecture has achieved a 30% recapture rate, and the cost-benefit ratio is estimated to be more than 300%. In the case of red sea bream, because recreational anglers now catch a higher percentage of stocked fish than do commercial fishermen, a new method of fisheries regulation may be required, as recreational anglers now pay only little of the costs of the stocking program. Masu salmon and abalone stocks are best preserved by the protection of spawning grounds. In marine ranching of striped jack, understanding of behavioral ecology seems to be essential for the success of this project and the prevention of genetic pollution. Behavioral quality of stocked fish is a determining factor in the success of stock enhancement, so attempts have been made to improve behavioral quality in several species. Although sea farming projects have been well supported by basic research on diet, physiology, morphology, and behavior, the present authors believe that ecological research in the natural habitat of each species is indispensable for the success of stock enhancement and that the national and prefectural governments should take the initiative in protection of genetic diversity.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: March 1, 1998
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