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Free Content Monophyly of the Grammatidae and of the Notograptidae, with Evidence for their Phylogenetic Positions Among Perciforms

Monophyly of a redefined Grammatidae consisting only of Gramma Poey and Lipogramma Böhlke is supported by synapomorphic modification of the cheek musculature: adductor mandibulae with a separate A1β portion lying lateral to the levator arcus palatini. The position of the Grammatidae in the Perciformes remains uncertain. Contrary to recent studies, its traditional placement with the percoid “disjunct lateral-line serranoids” (Opistognathidae, Plesiopidae and Pseudochromidae) is not corroborated by present evidence. Monophyly of the Notograptidae, containing only Notograptus Günther, is supported by numerous autapomorphies, including: anterior expansion of the median ethmoid; a large section of the adductor mandibulae that originates broadly on the skull, preopercle, and suspensorium; and a highly reduced gill-arch skeleton. Of several competing hypotheses, current evidence favors a relationship of notograptids to acanthoclinine plesiopids.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 1993

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