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Free Content Synopsis of Syngnathine Pipefishes Usually Referred to the Genus Ichthyocampus Kaup, with Description of New Genera and Species

One western Atlantic and 17 nominal Indo-Pacific species of syngnathine (tail pouch) pipefishes, commonly referred to the monotypic Indo-Pacific genus Ichthyocampus Kaup (type-species Syngnathus carce Hamilton Buchanan), are redescribed and/or discussed and four Indo-Pacific species are described as new. Mannarichthys gen. nov. is proposed for two species lacking an anal fin (Ichthyocampus pictus Duncker and the Atlantic Ichthyocampus pawneei Herald). Phoxocampus gen. nov., proposed for three species (Ichthyocampus belcheri Kaup, I. diacanthus Schultz, Syngnathus tetrophthalmus Bleeker), is characterized by pointed hooklike posterior tail ring angles and midlateral termination of the lateral trunk ridge. Two species groups with midlateral termination of lateral trunk ridge but without hooklike tail ring angles are referred to Festucalex Whitley and Campichthys Whitley. Festucalex (slender snout; low and entire median snout ridge; pectoral-fin rays usually 12 or more) includes Syngnathus cinctus Ramsay, lchthyocampus scalaris G√ľnther, I. erythraeus Gilbert, Festuealex gibbsi n. sp. (Queensland and New Guinea) and F. wassi n. sp. (Samoa). Campichthys (deep snout; snout ridge elevated or knobbed; pectoral-fin rays usually 10 or less) includes Ichthyocampus tryoni Ogilby, I. galei Duncker, Campichthys tricarinatus n. sp. (Western Australia) and C. nanus n. sp. (Mozambique). Ichthyocampus cristatus McCulloch and Waite, a species with strongly elevated snout ridge, variable configuration of the lateral trunk ridge and 8 caudal-fin rays, is referred to the monotypic genus Stipecampus Whitley.

Ichthyocampus davaoensis Herald, known only from the juvenile holotype, is provisionally referred to Siokunichthys Herald. The postlarval holotype and paratype of Ichthyocampus bikiniensis Herald are not referrable to Ichthyoeampus, and their size (ca. 7-10 mm SL) and state of development precludes placement in any genus of pipefishes at this time. Five nominal Indo-Pacific species are synonymized as follows: Campichthys tryoni lindemanensis Whitley (=Mannarichthys pictus); Ichthyocampus kampeni Weber (=Phoxocampus tetrophthalmus); Ichthyocampus townsendi Duncker, I. philippinus Fowler and Hippichthys amakusensis Tomiyama (=Festucalex erythraeus).

This synopsis, including all known or available museum specimens, provides a foundation for further study and eventual review of the treated genera. There is evidence that polyphyletic species groups are here included in certain genera. but lack of adequate study material precludes immediate solution of these problems. All genera are diagnosed, each species is illustrated, distribution maps are given for examined materials, and a key is provided for all treated species.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: October 1, 1977

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