Ship-board global navigation satellite system (GNSS) measurements are widely used to determine sea surface heights, marine geoid validation, and/or satellite altimetry calibration. However, the use of a vessel could be complicated near coastal areas due to shallow water. Therefore,
in the area of sea ice formation, GNSS measurements on the ice surface could be a viable alternative to vessel-borne surveys. Importantly, the ice-covered water is not affected by short-term winds, which otherwise could have systematic influence on the instantaneous sea surface topography.
This study tackles methodology and validation of marine geoid models by profile-wise GNSS measurements on ice in an archipelago of the Baltic Sea. The GNSS measurements were carried out on the three ice roads with total length 48 kilometers. The along-route standard deviation between
the gravimetric geoid model and profile-wise GNSS heights remained within ±2.1 centimeters.
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