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Coal as an Energy Source in Turkey

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The objective of this study is to investigate many aspects of coal as an energy source in Turkey, giving the structure of the Turkish coal industry, Turkey's coal reserves, and environmental concerns. Turkey has mainly hard coal (HC) and lignite (LG) reserves with 1,126 million tons (Mt) and 8,375 Mt as of 1999, respectively. Rich LG deposits are spread all over the country. About 69% of Turkey's lignite reserves consist of LG with a lower heating value of 8,374 kJ/kg, while better quality LG of over 12,561 kJ/kg only accounts for approximately 7%. Coal is a major fuel source for Turkey and is used mainly for electric power, steel making, and cement production. Coal consumption (both HC and LG) in Turkey is projected to increase by 278 Mt, from 54 Mt in 1990 to 332 Mt in 2020. The share of coal in Turkey's total primary energy consumption is expected to increase from 32% in 1999 to 40% in 2020. The coal share of energy consumed in Turkey for electricity generation is also projected to remain fairly constant, increasing from 26% in 1999 to 27% in 2020. Turkey imports significant amounts of hard coal, mainly from Australia, the United States, South Africa, and the former Soviet Union.
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Keywords: Turkey; coal; energy consumption; energy production; energy source; energy use; environment

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey

Publication date: January 1, 2004

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