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Apport de la teledetection a l'etude des plaques de sols nus en zone soudanienne (Burkina-Faso)

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L'imagerie satellitale haute resolution SPOT est utilisee pour detecter les plaques de sols nus en zone de savane soudanienne. L'objectif hydrologique de cette determination est de mieux comprendre en quoi la presence ou l'absence de ces plaques explique la genese des ruissellements dans les petits bassins versants: contribution au transfert d'eau continu entre le versant elementaire et le bas-fond et genese de debits de crues extremes. La precision de la cartographie est appreciee a partir de documents de terrain detailles (echelle 1/10,000) servant de reference pour connaitre la repartition, le nombre, la surface et la forme des plaques. La qualite d'estimation est evaluee en separant erreur geometrique fonction de la resolution utilisee, et erreur radiometrique fonction des canaux utilises et de la date de l'image. Pour cet objectif thematique, les images SPOT XS paraissent alors suffisamment precises pour detecter les plaques de sols nus (taille minimale des plaques 0.25ha) a partir d'une image de saison des pluies (grand contraste entre sols nus et cultures). L'application porte sur un petit bassin versant du Burkina Faso (Imiga, 12km2). High-resolution SPOT (System Probatoire pour l'Observation de la Terre) satellite imagery was used to detect patches of bare soil in a Sudanian savannah zone. The objectives of this work were linked to hydrology, i.e. towards a better understanding of the run-off generation in small catchments due to the presence and distribution on these surfaces. The mapping accuracy was estimated using very fine ground documents as reference (scale 1/10,000), by comparing the distribution of patch number, area and shape. The mapping quality was determined through a separation in geometric errors due to resolution (scale effects) and radiometric errors due to bands and date of the image. In respect of the thematic objectives, the determination appears accurate (the smallest well detected patches were 0.25ha in area) using a wet season image (great contrast between bare soils and cultivated areas). The study area was a small area of Burkina Faso (imige catchment area of 12km2).
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 10, 2000

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