Spatiotemporal autocorrelation and nonstationarity are two important issues in the modeling of geographical data. Built upon the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model and the geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR) model, this article develops a geographically
and temporally weighted autoregressive model (GTWAR) to account for both nonstationary and auto-correlated effects simultaneously and formulates a two-stage least squares framework to estimate this model. Compared with the maximum likelihood estimation method, the proposed algorithm that does
not require a prespecified distribution can effectively reduce the computation complexity. To demonstrate the efficacy of our model and algorithm, a case study on housing prices in the city of Shenzhen, China, from year 2004 to 2008 is carried out. The results demonstrate that there are substantial
benefits in modeling both spatiotemporal nonstationarity and autocorrelation effects simultaneously on housing prices in terms of R
2 and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). The proposed model reduces the absolute errors by 31.8% and 67.7% relative to the GTWR and GWR models,
respectively, in the Shenzhen data set. Moreover, the GTWAR model improves the goodness-of-fit of the ordinary least squares model and the GTWR model from 0.617 and 0.875 to 0.914 in terms of R
2. The AIC test corroborates that the improvements made by GTWAR over the GWR and
the GTWR models are statistically significant.
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