Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction with saponification (MAES) for the determination of polybrominated flame retardants in aquaculture samples
The efficiency of microwave-assisted extraction with saponification (MAES) for the determination of seven polybrominated flame retardants (polybrominated biphenyls, PBBs; and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs) in aquaculture samples is described and compared with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Chemometric techniques based on experimental designs and desirability functions were used for simultaneous optimization of the operational parameters used in both MAES and MAE processes. Application of MAES to this group of contaminants in aquaculture samples, which had not been previously applied to this type of analytes, was shown to be superior to MAE in terms of extraction efficiency, extraction time and lipid content extracted from complex matrices (0.7% as against 18.0% for MAE extracts). PBBs and PBDEs were determined by gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The quantification limits for the analytes were 40-750 pg g-1 (except for BB-15, which was 1.43 ng g-1). Precision for MAES-GC-ECD (%RSD < 11%) was significantly better than for MAE-GC-ECD (%RSD < 20%). The accuracy of both optimized methods was satisfactorily demonstrated by analysis of appropriate certified reference material (CRM), WMF-01.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Publication date: August 1, 2008