Norwegian grain samples (73 oats, 75 barley, 83 wheat) from the 2000-02 growing seasons were examined for contamination with moniliformin, and the association between the fungal metabolite and the number of kernels infected with common Fusaria was investigated. Before quantification of moniliformin using ion pairing reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array ultraviolet light detection, all samples were extracted using acetonitrile/water (84/16) and disposable strong anion exchange columns used for clean up. The limit of detection was 40 g kg−1. Moniliformin was found in 25, 32 and 76% of the barley, oats and wheat samples, respectively. The maximum concentrations of moniliformin in barley, oats and wheat were 380, 210 and 950 g kg−1, respectively. At the same time, the prevalence and infection level of the moniliformin-producing F. avenaceum/arthrosporioides was as high as 100 and >53% on average, respectively. Moniliformin concentrations were significantly correlated to the variables grain species, growing season and infection with F. avenaceum/arthrosporioides and F. culmorum. The survey indicates that the prevalence of moniliformin in Norwegian grain is high, especially in wheat. On the other hand, field conditions in Norway do not seem to favour contamination of grain with high levels of moniliformin.
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high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC);
Document Type: Research Article
National Veterinary Institute Department of Feed and Food Hygiene Ullevaalsveien 68 PO Box 8156 Dep. N-0033 Oslo Norway
Center for Analytical Chemistry Institute for Agrobiotechnology (IFA Tulln) Konrad Lorenz Str. 20 A-3430 Tulln Austria
Publication date: June 1, 2004
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