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N-methyl carbamate concentrations and dietary intake estimates for apple and grape juices available on the retail market in Canada

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Infants and young children consume fruit juices and drinks at rates exceeding those of older children and adults. Carbamate pesticides are known to be used on a broad spectrum of crops, including orchard and vine crops such as apples and grapes. Concern over potential exposure to these acutely toxic pesticides by infants and young children has increased in the last decade. Liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used to determine the concentrations of seven N-methyl carbamates and three transformation products in domestic and imported apple and grape juices collected across Canada. Carbaryl was the most frequently (58.6%) detected N-methyl carbamate in juice samples studied. It was observed more frequently in grape juices than in apple or mixed juices. Oxamyl and methomyl were detected in apple juice samples, although they were below detection limits in all grape and mixed juice samples analysed. Maximum levels of carbaryl, methomyl and oxamyl were 93, 6.7 and 4.6 ng ml-1, respectively. All other analytes were not present in any juice sample at concentrations above the method detection limit (0.3 ng ml-1). In all cases, N-methyl carbamate residues were well below the maximum residue limit established for apples and grapes in the Canadian Food and Drug Regulations. No estimated dietary intakes were above the acceptable daily intakes in any age-sex category, where an acceptable daily intake has been proposed. Carbaryl short-term intake estimates were calculated and all were below the proposed acute reference doses.
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Keywords: N-methyl carbamates; consumption; dietary intake; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); juices

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Food Research Division Bureau of Chemical Safety, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada 2203D Tunney's Pasture Ottawa ON Canada K1A 0L2 2: Food Directorate Manitoba and Saskatchewan Region 510 Lagimodière Boulevard Winnipeg Manitoba Canada R2J 3Y1

Publication date: June 1, 2004

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