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Cadmium intake of moose hunters in Finland from consumption of moose meat, liver and kidney

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Although the average cadmium intake in Finland is about 10 μg day−1, some risk groups can be identified. This study assessed cadmium intake from the consumption of moose meat, liver and kidneys by moose hunters. Consumption data from a postal questionnaire were combined with a representative database on moose cadmium concentrations. Cadmium intakes were calculated as point estimates for all respondents (n = 711), for those consuming moose meat, liver and/or kidneys, and for the highest decile of those. Probabilistic modelling using the Monte Carlo technique was used to simulate the distribution of dietary cadmium exposure. Of the respondents, 69% consumed moose liver and only 23% moose kidneys. The consumption of moose liver or kidneys significantly increased cadmium intake, whereas moose meat (median consumption 17 kg year−1 person−1) contributed only slightly (0.16 μg day−1 person−1) to the daily total cadmium intake. In the simulation, 10% of the moose hunters had an intake of > 8.76 μg day−1 (14.6% of PTWI for a 60-kg person) from moose. Point estimates provided only a partial understanding of the potential exposure. Simulated distributions of intake were more useful in characterizing exposure. The study revealed that heavy users of moose organs have a relatively narrow safety margin from the levels of cadmium probably causing adverse health effects.
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Keywords: cadmium; consumption; dietary intake; kidneys; liver; meat; moose

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: National Veterinary and Food Research Institute Department of Risk Assessment Kuopio Finland 2: National Veterinary and Food Research Institute Department of Chemistry Kuopio Finland 3: Kuopio Department National Veterinary and Food Research Institute Kuopio Finland

Publication date: 01 May 2003

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