Although the average cadmium intake in Finland is about 10 μg day−1, some risk groups can be identified. This study assessed cadmium intake from the consumption of moose meat, liver and kidneys by moose hunters. Consumption data from a postal questionnaire were combined with a representative database on moose cadmium concentrations. Cadmium intakes were calculated as point estimates for all respondents (n = 711), for those consuming moose meat, liver and/or kidneys, and for the highest decile of those. Probabilistic modelling using the Monte Carlo technique was used to simulate the distribution of dietary cadmium exposure. Of the respondents, 69% consumed moose liver and only 23% moose kidneys. The consumption of moose liver or kidneys significantly increased cadmium intake, whereas moose meat (median consumption 17 kg year−1 person−1) contributed only slightly (0.16 μg day−1 person−1) to the daily total cadmium intake. In the simulation, 10% of the moose hunters had an intake of > 8.76 μg day−1 (14.6% of PTWI for a 60-kg person) from moose. Point estimates provided only a partial understanding of the potential exposure. Simulated distributions of intake were more useful in characterizing exposure. The study revealed that heavy users of moose organs have a relatively narrow safety margin from the levels of cadmium probably causing adverse health effects.
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Document Type: Research Article
National Veterinary and Food Research Institute Department of Risk Assessment Kuopio Finland
National Veterinary and Food Research Institute Department of Chemistry Kuopio Finland
Kuopio Department National Veterinary and Food Research Institute Kuopio Finland
Publication date: May 1, 2003
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