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Survey of bottled drinking waters sold in Canada for chlorate, bromide, bromate, lead, cadmium and other trace elements

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Mineral, spring and other bottled drinking waters sold in Canada in the winter of 1995-96 were surveyed for chlorate, bromide, bromate, Cr(VI), Li, B, Al, Mn, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ba, Be, V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Tl, Pb, Na, K, Ca and Mg. Chlorate and bromide were determined by ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity detection, Cr(VI) by IC with colorimetric detection, bromate by solvent extraction and gas chromatography (GC), trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), and Na, K, Ca and Mg by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAA). Most chemicals in the 199 samples analysed were well within national and international drinking water guidelines. World Health Organization and/or Canadian drinking water guidelines were exceeded for B (22 samples), Al (9), Cr (1), Mn (5), Ni (1), As (10), Se (24) and Pb (1). Bromate levels are reported for information purposes and are considered as the maximum concentrations in the samples. In three distilled water products, unexpectedly high concentrations of Cu (88-147 µg l-1) and Ni (16-35 µg l-1) were found, and a comparison of distilled and non-distilled waters from two of the brands suggested the likely cause to be contamination during the distillation process. Li concentration in one sample was at a therapeutic dose and could pose an overdose risk to individuals on Li medication.
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Keywords: BOTTLED WATER; BROMATE; CADMIUM; CHLORATE; ICPMS; ION CHROMATOGRAPHY; LEAD; MINERAL WATER; SPRING WATER; TRACE ELEMENTS

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Food Research Division 2203D, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Food Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada

Publication date: August 1, 2002

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