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Analysis of 3-D human foot forms using the Free Form Deformation method and its application in grading shoe lasts

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An effective way to design well-fitting products is to analyse human body forms and to classify them into several groups. In the present study, a new method is proposed to analyse human body forms using the FFD (Free Form Deformation) technique. The FFD method is a way to deform the shapes of object smoothly by moving control lattice points set around the object. The reference body form is automatically deformed to coincide with the other body forms using the FFD method. The dissimilarity is defined by the movements of the control lattice points. The foot forms of 56 Japanese adult females were analysed with this method, and distributions for them were calculated using multi-dimensional scaling. The first axis contrasts feet with high dorsal arches and low dorsal arches, and the second axis is related to the antero-posterior proportion of the foot. As an application of the present method, a last of width EEEE was designed from an existing last of width E by applying the control lattice points that converted a representative foot of width E into a foot of width EEEE. The new EEEE width last reflected the allometric differences between narrow and wide feet better than one obtained by a conventional method. It was found that the present method with FFD is not only useful for classifying 3-D human body forms, but also has potential as applications for designing well-fitting products.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: National Institute of Biosciences and Human-Technology, 1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, 305-8566, Japan

Publication date: September 1, 2000

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