Manufacturing systems energy efficiency and the embodied energy of products are highly commented topics nowadays. So far, despite their interrelated nature, they have unfortunately been considered to be quite different from each other. Consequently, on one hand, product design remains
as an unrecognised influence on the energy consumption of a manufacturing system, and on the other hand, manufacturing energy efficiency is unrealistically estimated in the calculation of product embodied energy. The present article integrates the existing literature on manufacturing energy
consumption models and sets up a conceptual framework to assess the energy consumption of manufacturing systems from a product design perspective. This framework was implemented in a prototype software workflow, which was proven to generate interesting results for ecodesi gn and cleaner production
initiatives. It helps in deriving realistic energy consumption values that can be linked to concrete product or process parameters, and therefore allows the improvement of product manufacturing energy efficiency at both design and manufacturing stages.
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