Use of Primary Sludge from Pulp and Paper Mills for Nanocomposites
Cellulose nanocrystals have been evaluated as reinforcement material in polymeric matrices due to their potential to improve the mechanical, optical, and dielectric properties of these matrixes. This work describes how high pressure defibrillation and chemical purification affect the
sludge fiber morphology from micro to nanoscale. Microscopy techniques and X-ray diffraction were used to study the structure and properties of the prepared nanofibers and composites. Microscopic studies showed that the used individualization processes lead to a unique morphology of interconnected
web-like structure of sludge fibers. The nanofibers are bundles of cellulose fibers having widths (5 to 30 nm) and estimated lengths of several micrometers.
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pulp & paper sludge; sludge nanofibre
Document Type: Research Article
Department of Natural Resources, College of Agricultural Sciences,São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu,18610-307,São Paulo, Brazil
Centre for Biocomposites and Biomaterials Processing,University of Toronto, Toronto,Ontario,M5S 3B3, Canada
Department of Physics & Astronomy and Chemistry,Trent University, Peterborough,Ontario,K9J 7B8, Canada
May 3, 2012