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Use of Primary Sludge from Pulp and Paper Mills for Nanocomposites

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Cellulose nanocrystals have been evaluated as reinforcement material in polymeric matrices due to their potential to improve the mechanical, optical, and dielectric properties of these matrixes. This work describes how high pressure defibrillation and chemical purification affect the sludge fiber morphology from micro to nanoscale. Microscopy techniques and X-ray diffraction were used to study the structure and properties of the prepared nanofibers and composites. Microscopic studies showed that the used individualization processes lead to a unique morphology of interconnected web-like structure of sludge fibers. The nanofibers are bundles of cellulose fibers having widths (5 to 30 nm) and estimated lengths of several micrometers.
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Keywords: Nanobiocomposites; nanocellulose; nanocomposite; polyurethane; pulp & paper sludge; sludge nanofibre

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Natural Resources, College of Agricultural Sciences,São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu,18610-307,São Paulo, Brazil 2: Centre for Biocomposites and Biomaterials Processing,University of Toronto, Toronto,Ontario,M5S 3B3, Canada 3: Department of Physics & Astronomy and Chemistry,Trent University, Peterborough,Ontario,K9J 7B8, Canada

Publication date: May 3, 2012

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