E-learning can be broadly defined as content designed for access through electronic communication, such as the Internet, intranets, digital versatile discs, and synchronous and asynchronous modules. M-learning carries the idea of e-learning a step further by adapting its content to handheld devices such as iPods (a digital audio and storage device from Apple Corporation), personal digital assistants, and smartphones. The main objective of m-learning is to provide the learner the ability to assimilate learning anywhere and at any time. The purpose of this article is to establish the state of m-learning in the corporate and education environments, the devices appropriate to m-learning, the advantages and disadvantages associated with m-learning, and the possible future direction of m-learning. Specifically, using the integrative literature review protocol, this article will cover, discuss, and address critical issues of m-learning including definitions, design models, caveats, adoption processes, and future trends.
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Document Type: Research Article
SoftAssist, Inc., King of Prussia, PA 19406, USA
Program of Instructional Systems, Penn State Great Valley School of Graduate Professional Studies, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
March 1, 2011