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Application of microwave-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for ultra-trace determination of lead and cadmium in cereals and agricultural products

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This study was designed to determine the ultra-trace amounts of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in various cereals (rice, wheat, barley, peas, beans, corn and lentil) obtained from the markets in Kermanshah city, West Iran. An efficient microextraction method was applied to separation and preconcentration of metal ions. This method is dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop, which overcomes the most important problems of other microextraction techniques. Some effective parameters on extraction were studied and, under optimised conditions, the enhancement factors were 122 and 115 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The calibration graphs were linear in the range of 0.1–50 µg kg−1 with correlation coefficient more than 0.992. The detection limit was 0.05 µg kg−1. The values of intra-day relative standard deviations and inter-day relative standard deviations were in the range of 4.7−5.3% and 6.0−6.8%, respectively. The Pb concentrations in rice and wheat samples were considerably higher than the allowable limits set by World Health Organization. The method was successfully applied to determination of the Pb and Cd in cereals, and application of the proposed method to the analysis of two certified reference materials produced results that were in good agreement with the certified values.
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Keywords: Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction; cadmium; cereals; lead; solidification of floating organic drop

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran 2: Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

Publication date: February 19, 2016

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