Trace-level determination of pyrethroid, neonicotinoid and carboxamide pesticides in beeswax using dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
The aim of the work was to develop an analytical procedure able to quantify traces of 13 neonicotinoids and pyrethroids as well as carboxamide in beeswax at low levels (ng g−1) to evaluate the contamination. For this purpose, an efficient sample preparation procedure was developed based on solid–liquid extraction using dispersive diatomaceous earth and acetonitrile. This step was followed by a selective and sensitive analysis based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). This analytical procedure was validated based on International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The limits of quantification ranged from 1 ng g−1 (thiamethoxam, clothianidin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and boscalid) to 40 ng g−1 (lambda-cyhalothrin). The method was then successfully applied to 60 samples of beeswax collected in several areas of France. The presence of thiacloprid, boscalid, imidacloprid and deltamethrin in beeswax was confirmed. The most frequently quantified pesticide was boscalid.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Institut des Sciences Analytiques, Université de Lyon, UMR5280 CNRS Université Lyon 1, ENS-Lyon, Villeurbanne, 69100, France
Publication date: February 19, 2015