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Polychlorinated naphthalene concentrations and profiles in cheese and butter, and comparisons with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations

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Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are candidates for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. PCNs are structurally and toxicologically similar to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) and its analogues. Intake in food is considered to be an important human exposure pathway for PCNs. In this preliminary study, cheese and butter samples were analysed for PCNs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using an isotope dilution gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PCN concentrations in the cheese and butter samples and to compare them with the PCDD, PCDF and PCB concentrations. The PCN concentrations were 5.6–103 pg g−1 of wet weight in the seven cheese samples tested and 5.0–199 pg g−1 of wet weight in the seven butter samples tested. The mass concentrations of lower chlorinated congeners were greater than those of the higher chlorinated congeners. Congeners of CN45/36, CN27/30 and CN33/34/37 were much more abundant than other congeners found in tetrachlorinated PCNs. Congeners of CN51, CN66/67 and CN73 were determined to be the predominant congeners in penta-, hexa- and heptachlorinated homologs, respectively. The PCNs contributed around 5% of the total PCN, PCDD, PCDF and PCB toxic equivalence (TEQ) values. CN73 was found to be the dominant PCN congener and contributed more than 40% to the PCN TEQ value. Congeners CN66/67, CN69 and CN63 were also found at relatively high levels. The PCB congener CB118 was the predominant congener (by mass-based concentration) of the 12 dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs). The PCBs contributed 53.8% of the total TEQ, and congener CB126 contributed more than any other compound that was analysed to the total TEQ. The PCDDs and PCDFs contributed 11.6% and 29.7% of the total TEQ values, respectively.
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Keywords: congener profiles; dairy products; persistent organic pollutants; polychlorinated naphthalenes

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding, 071002, China 2: State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China

Publication date: February 19, 2015

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