Determination of phenylglyoxylic acid in urine using a multi-pumping flow system
In this work a simple, fast and fully automated analytical methodology for the spectrophotometric determination of phenylglyoxylic acid is proposed. Phenylglyoxylic acid is a metabolite of styrene that is excreted in urine, being used as an indicator of styrene occupational exposure. The developed procedure was based on the phenylglyoxylic acid ability to inhibit the formation of the peroxovanadium cation produced by the reaction between vanadate and H2O2. The analytical process was implemented in a multi-pumping flow system that employs multiple solenoid actuated micro-pumps as the only active components. This enabled the reproducible insertion and efficient mixing of low volumes of sample and reagents as well as the transportation of the sample zone towards detection. Thus an easily controlled, low cost, compact and reliable analytical system was implemented. A linear working range for phenylglyoxylic acid concentrations up to 700 mg L−1 (r 2 = 0.995, n = 7), was obtained, with a detection limit of 37 mg L−1. The system handles about 43 determinations per hour yielding precise results (relative standard deviation < 5%, n = 10). The developed methodology was applied to the determination of phenylglyoxylic acid in urine samples and the obtained results were in agreement with those furnished by the comparison method with relative percentage deviations lower than 6.6%.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia,Universidade do Porto, Rua Aníbal Cunha 164, 4099-030, Porto – Portugal
Publication date: November 1, 2011