Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of 1-hydroxypyrene by the marine whelk Neptunea lyrata
In the marine environment, organisms can be exposed to oxidised forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of these derivatives has rarely been investigated and would lead to a better understanding of the overall fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and that of other phenolic contaminants. The marine whelk Neptunea lyrata was exposed to 1-hydroxypyrene through its diet over 35 days. Extracts from the muscle and visceral mass of each animal were analysed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The quantified compounds included 1-hydroxpyrene and the phase II metabolites pyrene sulphate, pyrene glucuronide and one isomer of pyrenediol disulphate. The hydroxylated hydrocarbon was highly retained with 78% of the exposure amount recovered primarily from the visceral mass of the whelks, while the muscle accounted for 4% of the body burden. Whelks efficiently biotransformed 1-hydroxypyrene with a mean of 81% of the compound detected as phase II metabolites. The novel biotransformation product, pyrenediol disulphate, accounted for the largest proportion of the 1-hydroxypyrene derivatives detected at body burdens below 200 ng. At higher body burdens, bioaccumulation increased. Control animals showed trace levels of pyrene derivatives with 76% represented by metabolites. This study highlights the importance of investigating the multiple fates of reactive chemicals in order to interpret exposure.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Ecosystem Research Division, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, DartmouthNova Scotia B2Y 4A2, Canada
Publication date: November 1, 2011