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Solid phase extraction and diffusive gradients in thin films techniques for determination of total and labile concentrations of Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) in Black Sea water

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Total dissolved and labile concentrations of Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) were determined at six locations of the Bourgas Gulf of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Solid phase extraction procedure based on monodisperse, submicrometer silica spheres modified with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane followed by the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed and applied to quantify the total dissolved metal concentrations in sea water. Quantitative sorption of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb was achieved in the pH range 7.5-8, for 30 min, adsorbed elements were easily eluted with 2 mL 2 mol L-1 HNO3. Since the optimal pH for quantitative sorption coincides with typical pH of Black Sea water (7.9-8.2), on-site pre-concentration of the analytes without any additional treatment was possible. Detection limits achieved for total dissolved metal quantification were: Cd 0.002 µg L-1, Cu 0.005 µg L-1, Ni 0.03 µg L-1, Pb 0.02 µg L-1 and relative standard deviations varied from 5-13% for all studied elements (for typical Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb concentrations in Black Sea water). Open pore diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique was employed for in-situ sampling and pre-concentration of the sea water and in combination with ETAAS was used to determine the proportion of dynamic (mobile and kinetically labile) species of Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) in the sea water. Obtained results showed strong complexation for Cu and Pb with sea water dissolved organic matter. The ratios between DGT-labile and total dissolved concentrations found for Cu(II) and Pb(II) were in the range 0.2-0.4. For Cd and Ni, these ratios varied from 0.6 to 0.8, suggesting higher degree of free and kinetically labile species of these metals in sea water.
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Keywords: Black Sea; DGT; solid phase extraction; speciation; trace elements

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sofia, 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria 2: Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria 3: Environmental Biophysical Chemistry, IIE-ENAC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland

Publication date: January 1, 2011

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