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Non-chromatographic hydride generation atomic spectrometric techniques for the speciation analysis of arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tellurium in water samples - a review

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Hydride generation (HG) coupled with AAS, ICP-AES, and AFS techniques for the speciation analysis of As, Sb, Se, and Te in environmental water samples is reviewed. Careful control of experimental conditions, offline/online sample pretreatment methods employing batch, continuous and flow-injection techniques, and cryogenic trapping of hydrides enable the determination of various species of hydride-forming elements without the use of chromatographic separation. Other non-chromatographic approaches include solvent extraction, ion exchange, and selective retention by microorganisms. Sample pretreatment, pH dependency of HG, and control of NaBH4/HCl concentration facilitate the determination of As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA) species. Inorganic species of arsenic are dominant in terrestrial waters, whereas inorganic and methylated species are reported in seawater. Selenium and tellurium speciation analysis is based on the hydrides generation only from the tetravalent state. Se(IV) and Se(VI) are the inorganic selenium species mostly reported in environmental samples, whereas speciation of tellurium is rarely reported. Antimony speciation analysis is based on the slow kinetics of hydride formation from the pentavalent state and is mainly reported in seawater samples.
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Keywords: Antimony; Arsenic; Non-chromatographic hydride generation techniques; Selenium; Speciation analysis; Tellurium

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Chemical Laboratory, Central Ground Water Board, Chennai, India 2: Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Madras, Chennai, India

Publication date: June 1, 2007

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