Rapid screening of alkylphenol exposure in fish bile using an enzymatic peroxidase biosensor
This article deals with the development and novel application of an amperometric peroxidase biosensor for monitoring fish exposure to petroleum-related discharges, in particular, to alkyl phenols (AP) using fish bile as the main sample material. The biosensor consisted of a screen-printed electrode coupled with peroxidase immobilized by glutaraldehyde cross-linking. The sensor was optimized with regards to factors such as immobilization procedures, substrate selectivity, and matrix effects. The biosensor was used for the analysis of fish bile samples from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) exposed in the laboratory during a 2 week period to different petroleum related compounds. The biosensor could distinguish between bile samples of fish exposed to water containing high concentrations (a mixture of C4–C7) to moderate levels (mainly C0–C5) of alkylphenols and that of the control group.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Dipartimento di Chimica, UniversitÃ degli Studi di Firenze, Polo Scientifico, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy 2: International Research Institute of Stavanger AS, IRIS&Akvamiljø, Mekjarvik 12, 4070 Randaberg, Norway
Publication date: December 10, 2006