A continuous-flow sequential extraction system was used to study the distribution of Pb, and its association with other elements (Fe, Al and Ca), in soils around a Pb smelter. Soil samples were analysed by a four-step continuous-flow sequential extraction procedure employing a modified Tessier/BCR scheme. Recoveries of Pb using the flow system (88–111%) were higher than those obtained using a conventional batch extraction system. There were also some differences in Pb distribution between fractions as determined using the two extraction systems. The most abundant fraction of Pb was extracted during the dissolution of soil oxides (Fe/Al). Extractograms (plots of concentration of elements vs . extractant volume/time) indicated that anthropogenic Pb was predominantly adsorbed onto Fe oxide surfaces in contaminated soils. In soil profiles, the highest amounts of Pb were found in the topsoil surface layers (0–5cm) of the contaminated soils with only limited movement into subsurface layers.
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Continuous-flow extraction system;
Document Type: Research Article
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Soil and Physical Sciences Group, Agriculture and Life Sciences Division, PO Box 84, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand
July 15, 2005
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