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Statistical evaluation of bioavailability of metals to grapes growing in contaminated vineyard soils using single extractants

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This article describes the statistical evaluation of concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ca, and Mg metals determined in twenty-two grape and corresponding soil samples from around a zinc smelter in Kayseri, Turkey. In the analyses of soil samples, three different extractants, 0.1 M HCl in 0.025 M H2SO4, 1 M NH4OAc, and aqua regia (1HNO3 + 3HCl), were used to extract and determine the leachable metal contents which are acid soluble, exchangeable, and total, respectively. A mixture of HNO3 and HClO4 was used to dissolve grape samples. The determinations of metals were performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The analytical data were evaluated by using principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchial cluster analysis (HCA), correlation analysis (CA), and enrichment factors (EF). The relationship between the grape-metal and soil-extractable-metal concentrations was examined to evaluate the bioavailability of metals in soil to grape samples. As a consequence of statistical evaluations, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Fe labile levels in soil were related to total grape-metal contents indicating the method's suitability for bioavailability studies in polluted soil-plant systems.
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Keywords: Bioavailability; Correlation; Grape; Metal pollution; Multivariate analysis

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: August 1, 2004

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