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Effects of Recess Length on Discharge Coefficients of Swirl Coaxial Injectors

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An experimental study has been performed to investigate the effects of the recess length on the discharge coefficients of swirl coaxial injectors. Liquid oxygen and kerosene (Jet A-1) were burned in a range of mixture ratios (1.97–3.31) and chamber pressures (43–80┬ábar) in small liquid rocket thrust chambers. Each thrust chamber was equipped with 19 liquid–liquid swirl coaxial injectors. While changing the recess length of the injectors, static pressure, temperature, and flow rate data were collected and analyzed to calculate the discharge coefficient. The discharge coefficients obtained from hot-firing tests are compared with those from cold-flow tests. Operating conditions such as oxidizer-to-fuel mixture ratio and chamber pressure have some influence on the discharge coefficients. The recess length of the injectors significantly affects the discharge coefficients in the hot-firing tests, but not in the cold-flow tests. The results show that the longer recess length gradually reduces the discharge coefficients. Especially when the liquid oxygen film collides with the kerosene film inside the fuel nozzle, the discharge coefficients of the outer fuel-side injectors decrease more remarkably than those of the inner oxidizer-side. It is thought that the flame anchored inside the recessed region in the swirl coaxial injector confines propellant flows, and the internal mixing of propellants strongly disturbs the outer fuel flow. Since the discharge coefficient is directly related to the injection pressure drop, the effects of recess length on discharge coefficients must be carefully considered when designing liquid–liquid swirl coaxial injectors.
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Keywords: Discharge coefficient; Recess length; Swirl coaxial injector

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Combustion Chamber Department,Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea

Publication date: March 1, 2012

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