Drinking water utilities around the world are vulnerable to various types of terrorist attacks including warfare contamination and bioterrorism. A distribution system comprises water tanks, pipes, pumps, and other components that deliver treated water from treatment plants to consumers. Particularly among large utilities, distribution systems may contain thousands of kilometers of pipes and numerous delivery points, which can be highly vulnerable to a terrorist deliberate contamination injection. This paper extends previous work on optimal early warning monitoring system layout for water networks security by addressing the monitoring stations detection sensitivities and response delays, and the consumer demands and contaminant injected flow rates randomness. The methodology developed is demonstrated on two example applications.
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