Modified halloysite nanotubes and the alleviation of kidney damage induced by dietary zearalenone in swine
The aims of this study were, first, to investigate the toxicity of zearalenone (ZEN) through the analysis of biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, pathological changes and inflammatory response in the kidney of gestation sows and offspring; and, second, to evaluate the efficacy of modified halloysite nanotubes (MHNTs) for the alleviation to the adverse effects induced by ZEN. This study focused on the period of organogenesis between days 35 and 70 of gestation, and treatments included (1) a control diet; (2) contaminated grain (50% control corn and 50% mouldy corn); and (3) contaminated grain (50% control corn and 50% mouldy corn) + 1% MHNTs. ZEN treatment significantly increased most of the biochemical parameters and inflammatory cytokines and degenerative changes in the kidney and induced oxidative damage in plasma, whereas the addition of MHNTs in combination with ZEN induced a re-establishment of the biochemical parameters, the plasma oxidative stress enzyme activities and the normal histology of the kidney. Thus, the data strongly suggest that the deleterious effects of ZEN can be significantly diminished by MHNTs.
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