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Cadmium body burden of the Swiss population

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Urinary cadmium (Cd) excretion was measured within a representative Swiss collective. With a median of 0.23 µg/24 h (n = 1409) and the 95th percentile at 0.81 µg/24 h, no increased health risk for the general non-exposed population was identified. The independent variables Age, BMI and Smoking habit had a significant effect on urinary Cd excretion. No association was found with the region of residence and sex. A subsample comparison between 24-h and spot urines of the same subjects (n = 90) did not reveal an evident concentration difference for both creatinine-adjusted sample types. Dependencies on age and gender were observed for creatinine, which consequently impacts on the creatinine normalisation of urine samples.
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Keywords: 24-h urine; Switzerland; creatinine; excretion; urinary cadmium

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office, Risk Assessment Division, Bern, Switzerland 2: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland 3: Service of Nephrology and Hypertension, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland

Publication date: August 3, 2015

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