Urinary cadmium (Cd) excretion was measured within a representative Swiss collective. With a median of 0.23 µg/24 h (n = 1409) and the 95th percentile at 0.81 µg/24 h, no increased health risk for the general non-exposed population was
identified. The independent variables Age, BMI and Smoking habit had a significant effect on urinary Cd excretion. No association was found with the region of residence and sex. A subsample comparison between 24-h and spot urines of the same subjects (n = 90)
did not reveal an evident concentration difference for both creatinine-adjusted sample types. Dependencies on age and gender were observed for creatinine, which consequently impacts on the creatinine normalisation of urine samples.
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Document Type: Research Article
Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office, Risk Assessment Division, Bern, Switzerland
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
Service of Nephrology and Hypertension, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
Publication date: August 3, 2015