Potential of Utilizing Olive Cake Oil for Biodiesel Manufacturing
In this article, the potential of utilizing olive cake oil for biodiesel manufacturing was investigated. Olive cake oil was extracted from olive cake samples using hexane as an extraction solvent. Physical properties of the extracted oil were measured. The extracted oil was converted to methyl ester in a two-step process: Acid-catalyzed esterification followed by alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The results showed that the extracted oil, which represented 13.75% of olive cake, had a very high acidity value of 27.91 mg KOH g–1 oil and a peroxide value of 205.36 mEq O2 kg–1 oil. The maximum methyl ester yield was 74.29% obtained at 30% of methanol to oil ratio, 60°C temperature with 1.0% by weight KOH catalyst. The produced biodiesel could contribute only to about 0.057% of the total primary energy consumption in Jordan. Furthermore, cost analysis was performed and correlation was obtained to estimate the biodiesel production cost depending on the plant capacity.
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