A soil microbial fuel cell was investigated that uses soil and groundwater to generate electricity. The cathode surface area and materials are always important for increasing power. Power density was shown to be a linear function of cathode surface area. Biofilm formation on the graphite
cathode was observed to be helpful in enhancing power output and maximum performance reached 89.2 mW/m2. As an application for the insertion-type soil microbial fuel cell, nitrate removing was investigated in cathode. Nitrate was reduced in an aerobic cathode at the rate of 37.5
mg nitrate/lit/day and 55 mg nitrate/lit/day in anaerobic cathode.
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