Comparative Investigations of Wheat and Spelt Cultivars: IgA, IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 Binding Characteristics
In spite of a close genetic relationship among cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and spelt (T. spelta) reports of people suffering from avoidance reactions to wheat products often stated a better tolerance of spelt products. The aim of this study was to reveal cultivar specific characteristics in terms of immunologically relevant properties. Pooled sera, containing specific IgE antibodies to cereal flours and pollen, were used to determine the IgE, IgA, IgG1 and IgG4 reactivity directed against water soluble protein fractions from five wheat and spelt cultivars by immunoblotting and ELISA. Analyses were performed with native and denatured protein samples, respectively. Cultivar specific characteristics with respect to binding capacity and polypeptide patterns were found to be most pronounced in IgA and IgE specific assays. Binding capacities of native and denatured cereal proteins differed considerably. IgA, IgE and IgG1 were found to bind higher portions of denatured proteins than IgG4. Microheterogeneity among water soluble proteins of cereal cultivars affects the binding properties of IgA, IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 immunoglobulins. These variations indicate differences in antigenicity and perhaps allergenicity of cereal cultivars.
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