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In vitro characterization of chicken bone marrow-derived dendritic cells following infection with very virulent infectious bursal disease virus

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Infectious bursal disease is caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), an immunosuppressive virus that targets immune cells such as B cells and macrophages. However, the involvement of dendritic cells (DCs) during IBDV infection is not well understood. In this study the In vitro effects of live and inactivated very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) UPM0081 on bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DC) were characterized and compared with BM-DC treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Morphologically, BM-DC treated with LPS and vvIBDV showed stellate shape when compared to immature BM-DC. In addition, LPS-treated and both live and inactivated vvIBDV-infected BM-DC expressed high levels of double positive CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class II antigens (>20%). vvIBDV-infected BM-DC showed significantly higher numbers of apoptotic cells compared to LPS. Replication of vvIBDV was detected in the infected BM-DC as evidenced by the increased expression of VP3 and VP4 IBDV antigens based on flow cytometry, real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence tests. Levels of different immune-related genes such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), CXCLi2 (IL-8), IL-18, interferon gamma (IFN-γ, IL-12α, CCR7 and Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3) were measured after LPS and vvIBDV treatments. However, marked differences were noticed in the onset and intensity of the gene expression between these two treatment groups. LPS was far more potent than live and inactivated vvIBDV in inducing the expression of IL-1β, IL-18 and CCR7 while expression of Th1-like cytokines, IFN-γ and IL-12α were significantly increased in the live vvIBDV treatment group. Meanwhile, the expression of TLR3 was increased in live vvIBDV-infected BM-DC as compared to control. Inactivated vvIBDV-treated BM-DC failed to stimulate IFN-γ, IL-12α and TLR3 expressions. This study suggested that BM-DC may serve as another target cells during IBDV infection which require further confirmation via in vivo studies.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia 2: The Roslin Institute and R (D)SVS, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, UK

Publication date: November 2, 2015

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