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Combined infectious bronchitis virus Arkansas and Massachusetts serotype vaccination suppresses replication of Arkansas vaccine virus

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Polyvalent infectious bronchitis virus vaccination is common worldwide. The possibility of vaccine interference after simultaneous combined vaccination with Arkansas (Ark) and Massachusetts (Mass)-type vaccines was evaluated in an effort to explain the high prevalence of Ark-type infectious bronchitis virus in vaccinated chickens. Chickens ocularly vaccinated with combinations of Ark and Mass showed predominance of Mass vaccine virus before 9 days post-vaccination (DPV) in tears. Even when Mass and Ark vaccines were inoculated into separate eyes, Mass vaccine virus was able to outcompete Ark vaccine virus. Although Mass vaccine virus apparently had a replication advantage over Ark vaccine in ocular tissues, Ark vaccine virus appeared to have an advantage in spreading to and/or replicating in the trachea. When chickens vaccinated with Ark or Mass vaccine were housed together, Mass vaccine virus was able to spread to Ark-vaccinated chickens, but the Ark vaccine was not detected in Mass-vaccinated chickens. Only Mass vaccine was detected in tears of sentinel birds introduced into groups receiving both vaccines. Furthermore, Ark vaccine virus RNA was not detectable until 10 DPV in most tear samples from chickens vaccinated with both Ark and Mass vaccines at varying Ark vaccine doses, while high concentrations of Mass virus RNA were detectable at 3–7 DPV. In contrast, Ark vaccine virus replicated effectively early after vaccination in chickens vaccinated with Ark vaccine alone. The different replication dynamics of Ark and Mass viruses in chickens vaccinated with combined vaccines did not result in reduced protection against Ark challenge at 21 DPV. Further studies are needed to clarify if the viral interference detected determines differences in protection against challenge at other time points after vaccination.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Pathobiology, 264 Greene Hall, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36849-5519, USA

Publication date: September 3, 2015

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