Evaluation of commonly-used farm disinfectants in wet and dry models of Salmonella farm contamination
Two experimental models of Salmonella contamination were used in an attempt to mimic the conditions of disinfectant use on farms. A wet model, for conditions such as boot dips, used disinfectant application to a slurry of poultry faeces inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Typhimurium. A dry model, for disinfectant application to surfaces and equipment with adherent or residual organic material, used Salmonella-inoculated poultry faeces that were air-dried onto wooden dowels, immersed in disinfectant solution then left in air at room temperature overnight. All samples were subjected to a disinfectant neutralization step and resuscitation in broth, followed by Salmonella culture on semi-solid then indicator media. Disinfectants were tested at 0.5x, 1x and 2x the concentrations specified for the general control of bacterial pathogens on livestock premises in the UK (Defra General Orders rates). Chlorocresol-based disinfectants provided consistently high rates of Salmonella killing in both wet and dry tests. Formaldehyde-containing disinfectants showed very high efficacy in the dry test but were less effective in the shorter wet test, whereas the efficacy of glutaraldehyde without formaldehyde was variable between products. Other chemical classes tested (quaternary ammonium compounds, amphoteric surfactants, iodine preparations, peroxygens and a substituted phenol blend) were only moderately effective. They often required concentrations above General Orders rates to eliminate the test salmonellas, and frequently elimination was not achieved even under maximal conditions of concentration and exposure.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Department of Bacteriology, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
Publication date: February 1, 2011