Checklists of the Parasites of Dolphin, Coryphaena hippurus, and Pompano Dolphin, C. equiselis with New Records, Corrections, and Comments on the Literature
We report 125 parasites and associates of Dolphin, Coryphaena hippurus, and 28 of Pompano Dolphin, Coryphaena equiselis, including 8 new host records. We correct and explain problems in the literature in updating these checklists, including 64 confusions, 63 synonyms used, 51 omissions, 14 errors, 13 stomach contents called parasites, 9 incorrect species, 7 nomen nudums used, 7 incorrect higher classifications, 6 false hosts, and resolve the old controversy of Bathycotyle branchialis/B. coryphaenae preferred location in the gills, but not of its identity, the identity of Benedenia hendorffii, nor the mysterious rarity of Echinophallus lonchinobothrium and Plicocestus janickii. Most of the known parasites of dolphins actually rarely occur on these hosts. Dinurus hippurus, D. ivanosi, Floriceps saccatus, Metabronema magna, and Pennella sp. occur in limited geographic areas. However, 14 species of parasites occur commonly in the Dolphin and 5 in the Pompano Dolphin around the world. Charopinopsis quaternia is almost host specific and a characteristic parasite; Hysterothylacium pelagicum is genus specific and characteristic; Dinurus barbatus, D. breviductus, D. hippurus, D. longisinus, and D. tornatus are characteristic; Caligus quadratus, Hirudinella ventricosa, and Tetrochetus coryphaenae are primary parasites; Bathycotyle branchialis (or B. coryphaenae), Benedenia hendorffii, and Stephanostomum coryphaenae are host specific to the Dolphin; Pennella sp. is genus specific to dolphins. The Dolphin is the preferred host of Euryphorus nordmanni, a preferred host of Lernaeenicus longiventris, and dolphins are preferred hosts of Caligus coryphaenae. Rhadinorhynchus pristis is a secondary parasite. Caligus quadratus and Kudoa thyrsites may, and Neobenedenia melleni and M. pargueraensis will cause problems in Dolphin aquaculture. Only nine species of parasites have been shown to harm the Dolphin in nature, but this area is largely unknown. More dolphin parasites are known from the NW Atlantic, but this is study bias, not reality. Dolphins appear to be parasitologically isolated from other families of fishes. The distributions of some Dolphin parasites suggest this worldwide host may be separated into populations that have little communication.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Department of Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 2: Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico
Publication date: January 1, 2010