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Exon 10 skipping in ACAT1 caused by a novel c.949G>A mutation located at an exonic splice enhancer site

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Beta-ketothiolase deficiency, also known as mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (T2) deficiency, is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the acetylCoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) gene. A German T2deficient patient that developed a severe ketoacidotic episode at the age of 11 months, was revealed to be a compound heterozygote of a previously reported null mutation, c.472A>G (p.N158D) and a novel mutation, c.949G>A (p.D317N), in ACAT1. The c.949G>A mutation was suspected to cause aberrant splicing as it is located within an exonic splicing enhancer sequence (c. 947CTGACGC) that is a potential binding site for serine/argininerich splicing factor 1. A mutation in this sequence, c.951C>T, results in exon 10 skipping. A minigene construct was synthesized that included exon 9truncated intron 9exon 10truncated intron 10exon 11, and the splicing of this minigene revealed that the c.949G>A mutant construct caused exon 10 skipping in a proportion of the transcripts. Furthermore, additional substitution of G for C at the first nucleotide of exon 10 (c.941G>C) abolished the effect of the c.949G>A mutation. Transient expression analysis of the c.949G>A mutant cDNA revealed no residual T2 activity in the mutated D317N enzyme. Therefore, c.949G>A (D317N) is a pathogenic missense mutation, and diminishes the effect of an exonic splicing enhancer and causes exon 10 skipping. The present study demonstrates that a missense mutation, or even a synonymous substitution, may disrupt enzyme function by interference with splicing.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu University, Gifu 5011194, Japan 2: Division of Clinical Genetics, Gifu University Hospital, Gifu 5011194, Japan 3: Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life and Health Sciences, Education and Training Center of Medical Technology, Chubu University, Kasugai 4878501, Japan 4: Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna A1090, Austria 5: Bioanalytics and Biochemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, University of Applied Sciences, D53359 Rheinbach, Germany

Publication date: January 1, 2016

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  • Molecular Medicine Reports is a monthly, peer-reviewed journal available in print and online, that includes studies devoted to molecular medicine, underscoring aspects including pharmacology, pathology, genetics, neurosciences, infectious diseases, molecular cardiology and molecular surgery. In vitro and in vivo studies of experimental model systems pertaining to the mechanisms of a variety of diseases offer researchers the necessary tools and knowledge with which to aid the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases.
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