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Garlic extract in bladder cancer prevention: Evidence from T24 bladder cancer cell xenograft model, tissue microarray, and gene network analysis

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There is a growing interest in the use of naturally occurring agents in cancer prevention. This study investigated the garlic extract affects in bladder cancer (BC) prevention. The effect of garlic extract in cancer prevention was evaluated using the T24 BC BALB/C-nude mouse xenograft model. Microarray analysis of tissues was performed to identify differences in gene expression between garlic extract intake and control diet, and gene network analysis was performed to assess candidate mechanisms of action. Furthermore, we investigated the expression value of selected genes in the data of 165 BC patients. Compared to the control group, significant differences in tumor volume and tumor weight were observed in the groups fed 20 mg/kg (p<0.05), 200 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg of garlic extract (p<0.01). Genes (645) were identified as cancer prevention-related genes (fold change >2 and p<0.05) by tissue microarray analysis. A gene network analysis of 279 of these genes (p<0.01) was performed using Cytoscape/ClueGo software: 36 genes and 37 gene ontologies were mapped to gene networks. Protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway including AKAP12, RDX, and RAB13 genes were identified as potential mechanisms for the activity of garlic extract in cancer prevention. In BC patients, AKAP12 and RDX were decreased but, RAB13 was increased. Oral garlic extract has strong cancer prevention activity in vivo and an acceptable safety profile. PKA signaling process, especially increasing AKAP12 and RDX and decreasing RAB13, are candidate pathways that may mediate this prevention effect.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Republic of Korea 2: Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Republic of Korea 3: EBO Co. Ltd., Cheongju, Chungbuk 28116, Republic of Korea 4: TNT Research Co. Ltd., Anyang, Gyeonggi 14059, Republic of Korea 5: Medical Genomics Research Center, Korean Bioinformation Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea 6: School of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong, Gyeonggi 17546, Republic of Korea 7: Department of Biochemistry, Dongeui University College of Oriental Medicine, Busan, South Gyeongsang 47340, Republic of Korea 8: Section of Urological Oncology, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA

Publication date: July 1, 2017

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  • The International Journal of Oncology provides an international forum for the publication of the latest, cutting-edge research in the broad area of oncology and cancer treatment. The journal accepts original high quality works and reviews on all aspects of oncology research including carcinogenesis, metastasis, epidemiology, chemotherapy and viral oncology. Through fair and efficient peer review, the journal is dedicated to publishing top tier research in the field, offering authors rapid publication as well as high standards of copy-editing and production. The International Journal of Oncology is published on a monthly basis in both print and early online.
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