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Human FOX gene family (Review)

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Human Forkhead-box (FOX) gene family consists of at least 43 members, including FOXA1, FOXA2, FOXA3, FOXB1, FOXC1, FOXC2, FOXD1, FOXD2, FOXD3, FOXD4, FOXD5 (FOXD4L1), FOXD6 (FOXD4L3), FOXE1, FOXE2, FOXE3, FOXF1, FOXF2, FOXG1 (FOXG1B), FOXH1, FOXI1, FOXJ1, FOXJ2, FOXJ3, FOXK1, FOXK2, FOXL1, FOXL2, FOXM1, FOXN1, FOXN2 (HTLF), FOXN3 (CHES1), FOXN4, FOXN5 (FOXR1), FOXN6 (FOXR2), FOXO1 (FOXO1A), FOXO2 (FOXO6), FOXO3 (FOXO3A), FOXO4 (MLLT7), FOXP1, FOXP2, FOXP3, FOXP4, and FOXQ1. FOXE3-FOXD2 (1p33), FOXQ1-FOXF2-FOXC1 (6p25.3), and FOXF1-FOXC2-FOXL1 (16q24.1) loci are FOX gene clusters within the human genome. Members of FOX subfamilies A-G, I-L and Q were grouped into class 1 FOX proteins, while members of FOX subfamilies H and M-P were grouped into class 2 FOX proteins. C-terminal basic region within the FOX domain was the common feature of class 1 FOX proteins. FOXH1 and FOXO1 mRNAs are expressed in human embryonic stem (ES) cells. FOXC1, FOXC2, FOXE1, FOXE3, FOXL2, FOXN1, FOXP2 and FOXP3 genes are mutated in human congenital disorders. FOXA1 gene is amplified and over-expressed in esophageal and lung cancer. FOXM1 gene is up-regulated in pancreatic cancer and basal cell carcinoma due to the transcriptional regulation by Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway. FOXO1 gene is fused to PAX3 or PAX7 genes in rhabdomyosarcoma. FOXO3 and FOXO4 genes are fused to MLL gene in hematological malignancies. Deregulation of FOX family genes leads to congenital disorders, diabetes mellitus, or carcinogenesis. Expression profiles, genetic alterations and epigenetic changes of FOX family genes as well as binding proteins and target genes of FOX family transcription factors should be comprehensively investigated to develop novel therapeutics and preventives for human diseases.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: M&M Medical BioInformatics, Hongo 113-0033, Japan

Publication date: January 1, 2004

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  • The International Journal of Oncology provides an international forum for the publication of the latest, cutting-edge research in the broad area of oncology and cancer treatment. The journal accepts original high quality works and reviews on all aspects of oncology research including carcinogenesis, metastasis, epidemiology, chemotherapy and viral oncology. Through fair and efficient peer review, the journal is dedicated to publishing top tier research in the field, offering authors rapid publication as well as high standards of copy-editing and production. The International Journal of Oncology is published on a monthly basis in both print and early online.
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