BOTH DIETARY CALORIE AND FAT AFFECT THE GROWTH OF TRANSPLANTED MAMMARY-TUMORS IN RIII/SA MICE - THE EFFECT OF CALORIE IS MORE PROFOUND THAN THE EFFECT OF FAT
The effects of dietary calories and/or fat on the growth of mammary tumor transplants, their expression of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) and the incidence of lung metastasis were examined in RIII/Sa mice. Starting at 3-4 weeks of age, groups of female mice were fed either high isocaloric diets (16 kcal/day/mouse) containing 25% or 5% corn or fish oil or low isocaloric (10 kcal/day/mouse) diets containing 25% or 5% fish or corn oil. After one week, small pieces (2x2x2 mm) of tumor tissue, prepared from a transplantable mammary tumor, were inserted into the fourth pair of mammary glands of mice, and the mice maintained on their respective diets until sacrifice. All mice developed palpable tumors during a period of 3-4 weeks. After 12 weeks, all those mice that were assessed for tumor burden were sacrificed, tumor weight in each mouse determined, and the level of the expression of MMTV in the tumors evaluated by dot blot hybridization. Our results show that low isocalorie diets, regardless of the type or amount of fat, inhibited tumor growth by at least 60% in comparison to high isocalorie diets. However, mice fed low isocaloric diets containing fish oil were also found to produce smaller tumors (20-40%) as opposed to those mice fed similar, but corn oil containing diets. Fatty acid analyses of mammary tumors and liver tissue of mice fed corn oil and fish oil containing diets revealed that while normal and tumor tissues from both groups contained high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the tissues of mice fed corn oil had the n-6, whereas the mice fed fish oil had the n-3 family of fatty acids. The levels of MMTV expression were found to be unaffected by either caloric or fat content in the diet. In a separate set of experiments, the effect of a low calorie diet on lung metastasis was determined, It was found that mice fed a low calorie diet produced significantly less metastatic lung nodules than those mice fed a high calorie diet: the mean survival time for the former group of mice was 106 days, as compared to only 71 days for the latter group of mice. In conclusion, we suggest that the amount of calories in a diet is more important than the amount or the type of fat in suppressing the growth of transplanted tumors and that a low calorie diet may also lower the incidence of lung metastasis.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: AMER HLTH FDN,NAYLOR DANA INST DIS PREVENT,DIV NUTR CARCINOGENESIS,VALHALLA,NY 10595.
Publication date: June 1, 1995
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