In this study, we investigated the effects of Naju Jjok (Polygonum tinctorium Lour., NJJ) on interleukin (IL)-32 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) levels associated with allergic rhinitis (AR). Using female BALB/c mice, we created an animal model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced
AR. Prior to the callenge with OVA, the mice were administered, either nasally or orally with NJJ. In addition, we also used the eosinophilic cells line, Eol-1, stimulated with granulocytemacrophage colony-stimulation factor (GM-CSF). The mRNA and protein levels of inflammatory cytokines and
markers [interleukin (IL)-32, IL-4, macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)] were measured by RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively and serum levels were measured by ELISA. The increased levels of IL-32
in the mice with AR and in the stimulated eosinophilic cell line, Eol-1, were significantly reduced by NJJ. TSLP levels were also decreased following the oral administration of NJJ. Mice orally administered NJJ showed markedly alleviated clinical symptoms, such as a reduced number of nasal
rubs, decreased spleen weight, decreased serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and decreased serum histamine levels. The oral administration of NJJ significantly decreased the IL-4 levels, while increasing the interferon-γ levels in the spleen. The increased number of eosinophils
and mast cells infiltrating the nasal mucosal tissue of the mice with AR were decreased following the oral administration of NJJ. NJJ effectively attenuated caspase-1 activity in the mice with AR and in the stimulated Eol-1 cells. The oral administration of NJJ significantly reduced the levels
of inflammatory markers, such as MIP-2, ICAM-1 and COX-2. Furthermore, the intranasal administration of NJJ significantly reduced the early phase response to allergen exposure, such as nasal rubs, IgE production and histamine release, as well as the late phase responses, such as the expression
of inflammatory markers. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that NJJ may play a regulatory role in nasal inflammation.
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Document Type: Research Article
Biochip Research Center and Inflammatory Diseases Research Center, Hoseo University, Asan, Chungnam 336-795, Republic of Korea
Department of Pharmacology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea
Publication date: January 1, 2014
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The International Journal of Molecular Medicine is a monthly, peer-reviewed journal devoted to the publication of high quality studies related to the molecular mechanisms of human disease. The journal welcomes research on all aspects of molecular and clinical research, ranging from biochemistry to immunology, pathology, genetics, human genomics, microbiology, molecular pathogenesis, molecular cardiology, molecular surgery and molecular psychology.
The International Journal of Molecular Medicine aims to provide an insight for researchers within the community in regard to developing molecular tools and identifying molecular targets for the diagnosis and treatment of a diverse number of human diseases.
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