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MicroRNA-9 regulates the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ in human monocytes during the inflammatory response

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PPARδ is involved in the inflammatory response and its expression is induced by cytokines, however, limited knowledge has been produced regarding its regulation. Since recent findings have shown that microRNAs, which are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, are involved in the immune response, we set out to investigate whether PPARδ can be regulated by microRNAs expressed in monocytes. Bioinformatic analysis identified a putative miR-9 target site within the 3'-UTR of PPARδ that was subsequently verified to be functional using reporter constructs. Primary human monocytes stimulated with LPS showed a downregulation of PPARδ and its target genes after 4 h while the expression of miR-9 was induced. Analysis of pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages showed that human PPARδ mRNA as well as miR-9 expression was higher in M1 compared to M2 macrophages. Furthermore, treatment with the PPARδ agonist, GW501516, induced the expression of PPARδ target genes in the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages while no change was observed in the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Taken together, these data suggest that PPARδ is regulated by miR-9 in monocytes and that activation of PPARδ may be of importance in M1 pro-inflammatory but not in M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages in humans.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital L8:03, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden 2: Department of Oncology-Pathology, Cancer Center Karolinska (CCK), Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital R8:03, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden

Publication date: January 1, 2013

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  • The International Journal of Molecular Medicine is a monthly, peer-reviewed journal devoted to the publication of high quality studies related to the molecular mechanisms of human disease. The journal welcomes research on all aspects of molecular and clinical research, ranging from biochemistry to immunology, pathology, genetics, human genomics, microbiology, molecular pathogenesis, molecular cardiology, molecular surgery and molecular psychology.

    The International Journal of Molecular Medicine aims to provide an insight for researchers within the community in regard to developing molecular tools and identifying molecular targets for the diagnosis and treatment of a diverse number of human diseases.
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