Frequency and diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance among patients from Southern Brazil failing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic in Brazil is spreading to small municipalities as well as the innermost parts of the country and scarce information has been reported on the frequency of HIV-1 resistance-associated mutations in these areas. To determine the frequency and diversity of the HIV-1 antiretroviral resistance-associated mutations among patients failing highly active antiretroviral therapy from Londrina in Southern Brazil, 127 HIV-1 genotyping tests that were assayed during January 2000 to July 2008 from 108 patients were evaluated. Sixty-nine patients (63.9%) were male and 39 (36.1%) were female and the age ranged from 10 to 68 years (mean, 40.8±9.2). All of them showed at least one HIV-1 antiretroviral resistance-associated mutation and in 72 (56.7%) genotyping tests, mutations for the three antiretroviral classes were detected simultaneously. Mutations associated with resistance to protease inhibitor (PI) were detected in 124 tests (97.6%), the main ones were L90M in 28 (22.0%), V82A in 27 (21.2%), M46I in 26 (20.5%), and I54V in 23 (18.1%). The main mutations associated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance were M184V in 82 (64.6%), and the thymidine analog mutations were D67N in 51 (40.1%) tests, K70R in 45 (35.4%), T215Y in 40 (31.5%), and M41L in 38 (30.0%). The most frequent major mutations associated with resistance to non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTI) were K103N in 47 (37.0%), G190A in 11 (8.7%), and G190S in 2 (2.6%) tests. Mutations associated with reduced susceptibility to NRTI and IP simultaneously were observed in 46 (36.2%) tests. The results obtained may contribute to the improvement of the treatment strategies and the management of the antiretroviral drug therapy of HIV-1-infected patients from this Brazilian region, reducing public costs for antiretroviral drugs which have not been efficient in therapy.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Health Sciences Center, Londrina State University, CEP 86.038-440, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
Publication date: October 1, 2010
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- The International Journal of Molecular Medicine is a monthly, peer-reviewed journal devoted to the publication of high quality studies related to the molecular mechanisms of human disease. The journal welcomes research on all aspects of molecular and clinical research, ranging from biochemistry to immunology, pathology, genetics, human genomics, microbiology, molecular pathogenesis, molecular cardiology, molecular surgery and molecular psychology.
The International Journal of Molecular Medicine aims to provide an insight for researchers within the community in regard to developing molecular tools and identifying molecular targets for the diagnosis and treatment of a diverse number of human diseases.
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