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CpG hypermethylation of human four-and-a-half LIM domains 1 contributes to migration and invasion activity of human bladder cancer

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We previously reported a simple technique that combines microarray data from clinical bladder cancer (BC) specimens with those from a BC cell line (BOY) treated with a pharmacologic demethylating agent (5-aza-dC). We focused on the human four-and-a-half LIM domains 1 (FHL1) gene which was selected on the basis of previous microarray data analysis. Because LIM domains provide protein-protein binding interfaces, FHL genes play an important role in cellular events, such as focal adhesion and differentiation, by interacting with the target protein as either a repressor or activator. We hypothesized that inactivation of the FHL1 gene through CpG methylation contributes to cell viability including migration and invasion activity of human BC. After 5-aza-dC treatment, the expression levels of FHL1 mRNA transcript markedly increased in all cell lines tested, as shown by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The methylation index of FHL1 in our samples was significantly higher in 70 BC specimens than in 10 normal bladder epithelium (NBE) specimens (63.9±25.5 and 0.3±0.2, respectively; p=0.0066). Conversely, FHL1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the BC specimens than in the NBE ones (0.331±0.12 and 2.498±0.61, respectively; p=0.0011). In addition, significant inhibitions of wound healing (45.78±6.2, and 100±0, respectively; p=0.009) and of cell invasion (18.5±2.3 and 95.2±2.4, respectively; p=0.02) were observed in stable FHL1-transfected cells than in the control BC cells. In conclusion, we found that the mechanism of FHL1 down-regulation in BC is through CpG hypermethylation of the promoter region. FHL1 gene inactivation by CpG hypermethylation may thus contribute to migration and invasion activity of BC.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan

Publication date: January 1, 2010

More about this publication?
  • The International Journal of Molecular Medicine is a monthly, peer-reviewed journal devoted to the publication of high quality studies related to the molecular mechanisms of human disease. The journal welcomes research on all aspects of molecular and clinical research, ranging from biochemistry to immunology, pathology, genetics, human genomics, microbiology, molecular pathogenesis, molecular cardiology, molecular surgery and molecular psychology.

    The International Journal of Molecular Medicine aims to provide an insight for researchers within the community in regard to developing molecular tools and identifying molecular targets for the diagnosis and treatment of a diverse number of human diseases.
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